Ya-Profi. Master level, semifinal. Malware reverse and brute sql injection pentest (tasks 3, 5)
@ Rakovsky Stanislav | Saturday, Mar 27, 2021 | 5 minutes read | Update at Saturday, Mar 27, 2021

The master-level individual competition.

Reverse and traffic analysis: Task 3 and task 5.

Task creators decided to use writeups in this files as the last step of the competition, heh.

New! Доступен разбор на русском! Выкладываю свой доклад финала.


18 points, task 5. Malware reverse

Средства антивирусной защиты зафиксировали заражение одного из компьютеров сети трояном. Система мониторинга записала трафик зараженного компьютера.
Проанализируйте его и выясните, как вредоносное ПО попало на компьютер и какую информацию оно передало на свой управляющий сервер.

Формат флага: itmo{...}

Translated by google (pretty accurate):

Antivirus protection tools detected that one of the computers on the network was infected with a Trojan.
The monitoring system recorded the traffic of the infected computer.
Analyze it and find out how the malware got onto your computer and what information it transmitted to your command and control server.

Flag format: itmo {...}


Pcap file, too much conversations and resolved addresses

Exported objects… We can see something interesting like dr.exe and beacon from http server, and interesting requests on 5001 port.

dr.exe is non-packed pe executable

python payload… interesting string. Let’s look at strings nearby

The first though - It has statically linked curl to download encrypted python package.

And… Yes, exactly. It is a dropper.

Furthermore, it will decrypt your python.py.enc even if file downloading was successless, whoa. We even don’t need to look at decryption mechanism!

But fyi: it is RC4, the key is Key\x00 (4 bytes).


It uses AES got from here without any extra changes except removing obf and ctr modes.

User-defined functions are slightly obfuscated.

This script can be classified as backdoor or stealer - it has a functionality of:

  • running commands (f_82f3);
  • sending files to CnC (f_a174);
  • saving sent files to victim’s device (f_7c3e);
  • changing frequency of requests to Cnc (f_b349).

This backdoor has two stages:

  • reconnaissance - it sends the content of global variables such as COMPUTERNAME, USERDOMAIN, PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE and USERNAME. As a result CnC can send the answer with uid for this agent. This uid will be added to every next request made by backdoor.
  • sleep&check. The CnC can send \x00 or pastebin link with command. All links are 400-ed.

The second stage has 4 commands described above.

The encryption is not so simple and not so hard.

It uses urllib module, http proto.

The request has two parts: init vector (IV) and encrypted payload. The key for AES CBC is hardcoded, "cfbb0862a99566223beb5c65cd35ce85264fe385870796958ee1d604d243127f".

So our small snippet to decode commands:

from payload import * # comment out beacon init before running
from binascii import unhexlify as unhex

while True:
    dd = input()
    iv = dd[:32]; data = dd[32:]; a = AES(bytes.fromhex(key)).decrypt_cbc(unhex(data), unhex(iv));

Let’s filter out pcap and save only request made between our victim and CnC (ip.addr ==

Our two first requests are about downloading dropper and backdoor, passing it)

The second (from zero) packet: recon stage



Got d660a9ee08f2b8db74f2f2c84e14679f4edf1a0fc315245e6ec1161f07dffe20 - this is our uid

/<I’ll pass no-operation requests/>

The next command is to execute https://pastebin.com/raw/YB1ttGcK

The result sent by backdoor:


0001 Volume in drive C has no label.
 Volume Serial Number is 3808-37B4

 Directory of C:\Users\adm\Downloads

01/15/2021  10:59 AM    <DIR>          .
01/15/2021  10:59 AM    <DIR>          ..
01/15/2021  04:45 AM           186,684 5cd48b964566910009be0289-eight.jpg
01/15/2021  10:59 AM           405,504 dr.exe
01/15/2021  04:45 AM         1,176,071 Helping-your-new-cat-or-kitten-settle-in-1.png
01/15/2021  04:24 AM         4,304,792 KeePass-2.47-Setup.exe
01/15/2021  10:59 AM            14,507 payload.py
01/15/2021  04:46 AM        28,204,528 python-3.9.1-amd64.exe
01/15/2021  04:46 AM            92,482 _115537288_hi000618024.jpg
               7 File(s)     34,384,568 bytes
               2 Dir(s)   7,511,887,872 bytes free

User accounts for \\DESKTOP-RNRS5K4

adm                      Administrator            DefaultAccount
f.savage                 Guest                    WDAGUtilityAccount
The command completed successfully.

The next command to execute: https://pastebin.com/raw/EJpXYJXb

The answer of backdoor:

0003 Volume in drive C has no label.
 Volume Serial Number is 3808-37B4

 Directory of C:\Users\f.savage

01/15/2021  04:36 AM    <DIR>          .
01/15/2021  04:36 AM    <DIR>          ..
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          3D Objects
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Contacts
01/15/2021  04:36 AM    <DIR>          Desktop
01/15/2021  07:33 AM    <DIR>          Documents
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Downloads
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Favorites
01/15/2021  04:31 AM                24 keepas.txt
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Links
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Music
01/15/2021  04:30 AM    <DIR>          OneDrive
01/15/2021  04:29 AM    <DIR>          Pictures
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Saved Games
01/15/2021  04:29 AM    <DIR>          Searches
01/15/2021  04:28 AM    <DIR>          Videos
               1 File(s)             24 bytes
              15 Dir(s)   7,509,471,232 bytes free

Command from CnC: https://pastebin.com/raw/rytChjvF



Command from CnC: https://pastebin.com/raw/Q44gYdX5


0005 Volume in drive C has no label.
 Volume Serial Number is 3808-37B4

 Directory of C:\Users\f.savage\Documents

01/15/2021  07:33 AM    <DIR>          .
01/15/2021  07:33 AM    <DIR>          ..
01/15/2021  05:32 AM                26 flag.txt
               1 File(s)             26 bytes
               2 Dir(s)   7,504,375,808 bytes free

Command from CnC: https://pastebin.com/raw/NDmiyWft



Command from CnC: https://pastebin.com/raw/eE0MqKUr



16 points, task 3. Pentest tool

Description has lost T_T


Here we are - without trash packets!

We can see SQL injection and there is a file at the bottom of pcap.

File -> Export objects -> HTTP

This file is an password-protected archive.

Let’s examine sql requests:

Beautified by cyberchef:

GET /?filter=user';select CASE WHEN (SELECT 'true' from cred where (data = crypt('oWF7b8TV8OL5',data)) and name = 'dbadm') ='true' THEN PG_SLEEP(3) ELSE PG_SLEEP(0) END;-- HTTP/1.1

So we can expect 3 sec delay if we find correct password due our bruteforce.

Found. RCTrddxU8GB8

Extract the file from the archive… Flag is itmo{b6669795b1084948819538b8174c410a}


Under construction

Wow! Flipable!

Hello from another side of the Moon!

Looking for a flag? Okay, take this:

About me

Under construction. You can try to contact me and fill this field… haha… ha…